Chi-Anh La, Liviu-Octavian Varga, Martin Heusse and Andrzej Duda
In Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM’14)
Monday 22 September 2014
In this paper, we investigate schemes for energy-efficient multi-hop broadcasting in large-scale dense Wireless Sen- sor Networks. We begin with an initial simplified study of the schemes for relay selection. Our first finding is that MPR-based (Multipoint Relay) mechanisms work poorly in a dense network while the recently proposed Multicast Pro- tocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (MPL) protocol based on Trickle performs better. However, Trickle requires to overhear packet retransmissions in the vicinity, while sen- sor nodes try to avoid overhearing by periodically waking up and going to sleep to save energy.
We propose Beacon-based Forwarding Tree (BFT), a new scheme that achieves similar performance to MPL, although it fits better the case of nodes with low radio duty cycling MACs of the type of beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4. Our scheme also guarantees network coverage and its optimized version results in the shortest path distance to the broadcast source at a cost of lesser load mitigation. We compare and discuss the measured performance of MPL on top of Contiki- MAC and BFT over beacon-enabled 802.15.4 on a Contiki testbed. The experimental results of the comparisons show that BFT may achieve very good performance for a range of broadcast intensity, it has a predictable power consumption, a remarkable low power consumption for leaf nodes, and low loss rates. On the other hand, MPL over ContikiMAC can obtain very low duty cycles for low broadcast traffic.